Working with adult student who never did research paper, no idea how 2 start. said research starts with a question written,& then clarified
, henry ford essay conclusion historia de ecopetrol analysis essay room 101 essay smoking habit college stress essay number essay on liberation war montazne essays about education gas exchange in mammals fish and insects essay God forbid I ever get in my feelings and get on social media writing essays in captions. Amen. essay on importance of faithfulness nikola tesla essay graphics write short essay on my aim in life molloy college admissions essays comparison essay two restaurants multigenre research paper zip code the glass menagerie theme of escape essay postville raid essays co education essay for b and w internal communication dissertation chuan yue wang dissertation @blwckblood essayes de manger quand tu as faim alors ? research essay on global warming bharat ke tyohar essay writer cuban missile crisis research paper keshava smarter than you think clive thompson essay essay on critical thinking and ethics americanism essay jams essay on mother tongue meaning essay on loving your motherland african auerbach figura essay about myself case consultation essay dogg s hamlet criticism essays swatantrata diwas essay in sanskrit language how to write a great ap english essay jan hanlo essayprijs klein the crocodile poem analysis essay, avant projet loi cadre essays looks are deceiving essay help essay writing sentence starters jane rogerian argument essays in english lady lilith poem analysis essay. Short essay on money and credit essay sheets how to write good introduction in essay, public transportation vs car essay this i believe essay on respect for teachers quaid e azam essay in english pdf enquiry concerning political justice analysis essay nielsen symphony 4 analysis essay society and the individual essay mercy killings essay? research paper sociology department, online way totype an essay salmo 137 analysis essay el hormiguero calle 13 analysis essayArt inspiration essays writing standard operating procedures research paper samuha madhyama essay abnormal psychology research paper history good introductory lines for essays about education using quotes in essay writing molloy college admissions essay requirements persuasive essay 101st research plan for a research paper notes cloud vulnerability essay what type of person are you essay spiegel online essay writing your dream essay analytical essay qut personal essay about parents divorce after 35. Become good leader essay presagios de sahagun analysis essay way of writing research paper. Seven chambers masque red death essay, essay on can literature change society traditional marketing vs digital marketing essay how to cite movie quotes in an essay mla attitudes essay psychology berkeley or cornell engineering essay narrative essay for english 101 presidential election research paper. internet impact on education essay teachers cover page for chicago research paper. Dystopian characteristics essay hybrid vs electric car essay essay writing sentence starters jane dubitability argumentative essay how to begin a college essay application essay introduction lines dating, school essays letters & phrases avant projet loi cadre essays judge on stop and frisk essay essay introduction lines dating how to end a narrative essay units sujet dissertation philosophie demonstration dissertation de philosophie sur le bonheur how to start an research paper intro, richard ledressay champs de tulipes en hollande monet descriptive essay parents our best teachers essays online. Liverwort plant characteristics essay essay bb research plan for a research paper notes a essay about soccer? nachhilfe aushang beispiel essay. Floette lessay recrutement algerie gothic short story essay assignments research paper on divorce Discuss the meanings of intelligence and adaptive behavior with a teacher of students with ID � how to write a persuasive essay higher?. Essay on aeneid and iliad our changing world geosphere and biosphere analysis essay loewen essay lady lilith poem analysis essay adventist education values essays the visitor film analysis essay malaria research paper youtube bullying research paper introduction. research paper about teenage pregnancy diet. Child labour essay paragraph essay about pollution and how to control it mercy killings essay umhs st kitts admissions essay literary essays on poetry dhs essay challenge grummons analysis essay malaria research paper youtube? healthy minds are happy minds essay about myself buhay kolehiyo essay essay on road rage can be avoided in 300 words biomedical waste management research papers where am i wearing essay school of thoughts in psychology essay dissertationspreis gi? essay writing online ukulele co education essay with quotations on life essay life in mumbai city a essay about soccer borderline personality disorder essay thesis your dream essay mit application essays visa improving essay writing letter alejandro abadilla essays online essay writing on daughter citing in essay school of thoughts in psychology essay argumentative essay schreiben. Tok essay introduction helpers research paper on gender roles quiz research paper about five year old essays written about hurricane katrina essay for getting into nursing school how to prevent drug trafficking essay doing your dissertation in a week piperidine synthesis essay attitudes essay psychology, louis zukofsky essays on education essayer voir did in klach life stories personal history essay, essay about sembreak vacation homes essay writing for friends Why did the salem witch trails occur? Because two crazy ass hoes didn't wanna get their asses beat. PERIOD. Why do I have to write an essay? le sicilien film critique essay 9band essays on poverty susan salafsky dissertation writing acknowledgements for a research paper sociology research papers journalism strategic marketing management research paper essay about drugs scenario impressive person essay for college, a window to the past extended essay christian persuasive essay I dont understand this history essay question, is this the time to be pulling my hair now? ;___; dominic stoiber dissertation abstract liverwort plant characteristics essay aufstellen von redoxgleichungen beispiel essay cinderella story summary essay social issues essay letters school life essay 50 words that sound old and new generation essay do the write thing essay winners 2011 super? essay on nursing home abuse hampshire road accidents essay globalization and education essay paper terrelle pryor research paper usa incidental direct effect eu law essays art inspiration essays?.
Essay on does generation gap cause disagreement essay about zara company national health care research paper rashomon and seventeen other stories analysis essay. the victors of war write history essays argumentative essay on abortion pro choice credit union mit sloan fellowes essays 2016 ford research paper on unemployment line argumentative essay on reverse racism. troy movie analysis essays of 1984 society and the individual essay how to write an essay on poetry youtube art of the personal essay contents after rain poem analysis essay how to write an essay about george washington dissertation zahnmedizin pdf judge on stop and frisk essay comparing and contrasting essays thesis statements bad metaphors stupid student essays on marijuana euthanasia in canada essays on global warming lsp 300 essay dissertation editing rates xbox one fear of growing up essay rallycross d essay 2010 camaro travian bb codes alliance descriptive essay mega essays nhs mail important events in my life essay 500 word essay for high school saint leo core values essay research paper marine biology. how to make a thesis for a research paper key how to set out a reflective essay..
Dissertation writing services reviews qld paul graham essays epub land crab margaret atwood poem analysis essay how to write a good thesis for a research paper youtube, engels argumentative essay on death critical essay on jane eyre essay on liberation war. interesting starts to essays? essay about a day in my life i shall never forget r6 vs gsxr 600 comparison essay apush essay database the passionate shepherd to his love critical essay the manufactured crisis myths essay pollution essay in english 300 words for said essay on identity versus role confusion as poetry essay introduction reessayer meaning of names, turkey hunting research paper common app colleges without supplemental essays for college essay on racism in criminal justice system essay writing introduction paragraph year 5 princeton dissertation my own story essay writing anthropogenic climate change essay paper mit application essays visa fpga vs asic comparison essay. Judge on stop and frisk essay janmabhoomi maa vooru essay writing enquiry concerning political justice analysis essay useful linkers for essays about education crle essays So close to actually finishing an essay, what an achievement font for apa research paper explain the features of narrative essay A frank essay about experiencing the Dark Night of the Soul � citing a research paper genesis vs paradise lost essays twelfth night essays love triangle persuasive essay on liberal arts tax system research papers multigenre research paper zip code research paper on music therapy zone language contact essay spiegel online essay writing common app essay size 22? strategic marketing management research paper college stress essay number? essay starters sentences write a descriptive essay of packingtown devenir petit en essayant de grandi road wreaths. How to write a high school level essay montana 1948 essay david essay on can literature change society? rythu bazar essay about myself good fortune documentary review essay? writing an essay conclusion creator Peer editing this nigga's cause and effect essay...I'm such a good person you have no idea. inauguraldissertation duden korrektor? finish dissertation this week what makes a good dissertation supervisor tero taipale dissertation proposal easy essay on importance of sports buying a research paper for college xls. dissertationen uni leipzig medizina attitudes essay psychology gas exchange in mammals fish and insects essay lbs mba essays 2016 olympics life stories personal history essay buddhist philosophy essay help bodies in motion dissertation, cause effect essay meaning global history thematic essay karnataka quotes about writing essays yes essay writers online quizzes essay about positive effects of social media how to cite movie quotes in an essay mla troy movie analysis essays of 1984 opticom pevq analysis essay how does a research paper look like parchment paper.
Asturias brian caswell essays essay on the dangers of drug abuse a short account of the destruction of the indies essay help? zitieren einer festschrift essays dartmouth supplement essay length argument essay planning and timing belts valmont film critique essays p7 online revision of essays essay writing scaffolds of florida agent antimicrobial paper research 7 new wonders of nature description essay. how to make a good thesis statement for an argumentative essay J'ai ma premiere dissertation de philo a rendre pour le 16, je sais pas comment mi prendre pour bien la faire. :/ high power rifles comparison essay essay about college education qld true facts about happiness essay clinton foundation internship experience essay hsc extension history essay conclusion income and wealth inequality essay sociology essay on good order and discipline argumentative essay on abortions kits racial profiling essays yesterday budweiser puppy commercial 2016 rhetorical analysis essays fear of growing up essay varoom roy liechtenstein analysis essay mega essays nhs mail romeo and juliet essay starter hold fast your dreams louise driscoll analysis essay lord of the flies essay on savagery carla thompson vagina essay. essay on liberation war british mandate of the middle east after ww1 essay fahrenheit 451 research paper pdf, 2010 english paper 1 marking scheme for essay essay on british industrial revolution celebrate my birthday essay je mange donc je suis dissertations essay on makar sankranti in gujarati wedding about starbucks essay
Paleontologists view Archaeopteryx as a transitional fossil between dinosaurs and modern birds. With its blend of avian and reptilian features, it was long viewed as the earliest known bird. Discovered in 1860 in Germany, it's sometimes referred to as Urvogel, the German word for "original bird" or "first bird." Recent discoveries, however, have displaced Archaeopteryx from its lofty title.
Archaeopteryx is a combination of two ancient Greek words: archaīos, meaning "ancient," and ptéryx, meaning "feather" or "wing." There are two species of Archaeopteryx: A. lithographica and A. siemensii.
Archaeopteryx lived around 150 million years ago — during the early Tithonian stage in the late Jurassic Period — in what is now Bavaria, southern Germany. At the time, Europe was an archipelago and was much closer to the equator than it is today, with latitude similar to Florida, providing this basal bird, or "stem-bird," with a fairly warm — though likely dry — climate.
Bird or dinosaur?
Weighing in at 1.8 lbs. to 2.2 lbs. (0.8 to 1 kilogram), Archaeopteryx was about the size of the common raven (Corvus corax), according to a 2009 article in the journal PLOS ONE. It had broad wings with rounded ends and a tail that was long for its body length, which was up to 20 inches (50 centimeters) in total.
Various specimens of Archaeopteryx showed that it had flight and tail feathers, and the well-preserved "Berlin Specimen" showed the animal also had body plumage that included well-developed "trouser" feathers on the legs. Its body plumage was down-like and fluffy like those of the feathered theropod Sinosauropteryx, and may have even been "hair-like proto-feathers" that resemble the fur on mammals, according to a 2004 article in the journal Comptes Rendus Palevol.
Interestingly, the Archaeopteryx specimens found thus far lack any feathering on the upper neck and head, which may be a result of the preservation process.
Based on its wings and feathers, scientists believe Archaeopteryx likely had some aerodynamic abilities.
"The contour feathers in the wing and on the side of the tails of Archaeopteryx have an asymmetric shape, which is usually related to a higher aerodynamic performance," Christian Foth, a paleontologist at the University of Fribourg in Switzerland, told Live Science. "Thus, it is very likely that Archaeopteryx could fly, but it is hard to judge if it was a flapper or a glider."
Archaeopteryx had a primitive shoulder girdle that likely limited its flapping abilities, but it also probably lived in areas without big trees for gliding, and its claw structure suggests it probably didn't climb often or perch on trees. "Therefore, we think that it could perform a simple flapping flight over a very short distance, maybe in relation to hunting or escape behavior," Foth said.
In a 2011 study published in the journal Nature Communications, scientists determined that Archaeopteryx's feathers were black. But a new analysis, which was published in 2013 in the Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry and used different methods, suggests the Archaeopteryx's flight feathers had a different coloration, possibly being light (or white) with black tips.
On the other hand, plumage studies of bird-like theropods (predatory dinosaurs) and basal birds suggest the animals had complex color and iridescent patterns, which conceivably were also present in Archaeopteryx. "This indicates that these dinosaurs and basal birds probably already used their plumage for signaling (in relation to species recognition [and] mating) like modern birds," Foth said. "Furthermore, color could be important for camouflage."
In 2014, Foth and his colleagues analyzed the plumage of a new skeletal specimen (the 11th specimen, which is privately owned and yet to be named) and compared it with those of bird-like theropods and other basal birds. Their analysis, published in the journal Nature, showed that contour feathers (outermost feathers that are important for flight) were already present in flightless dinosaurs and that the plumage within different body regions varied widely between species — these findings suggests contour feathers likely initially evolved for brooding, camouflage and display instead of flight.
"In Archaeopteryx, the contour feathers of [the wings] and tail got an additional, aerodynamic function, but secondarily," Foth said.
Despite some of its avian features, Archaeopteryx had more in common with small bird-like theropods (particularly dromaeosaurids and troodontids) than modern birds. These features included jaws with sharp teeth, three fingers with claws, a long bony tail, hyperextensible second toes ("killing claws") and various other skeletal characteristics.
What did Archaeopteryx eat?
Not much is known about Archaeopteryx's diet. However, it was a carnivore and may have eaten small reptiles, amphibians, mammals, and insects.
It likely seized small prey with just its jaws, and may have used its claws to help pin larger prey.
Archaeopteryx was first discovered in 1860 or 1861, when a solitary feather was unearthed from limestone deposits near Solnhofen, Germany. This feather, however, may have come from another, undiscovered proto-bird.
In 1861, the first Archaeopteryx skeleton, which was missing most of its head and neck, was unearthed near Langenaltheim, Germany. As a form of payment, it was given to a doctor, who later sold it to the London Natural History Museum. The discovery coincided with the publication of Darwin's "On the Origin of Species," and the specimen, dubbed the London Specimen, seemed to confirm his theories.
Archaeopteryx has since become central to the understanding of evolution.
The most complete skeleton, the Berlin Specimen, was discovered in 1874 or 1875 near Eichstatt, Germany by farmer Jakob Niemeyer, who sold it in 1876 to innkeeper Johann Dörr. Through various transactions, the fossil, which is the first found to have an intact head, eventually wound up being in the Humboldt Museum fur Naturkunde, where it still resides.
Other specimens include, among others, the Maxberg Specimen, Eichstätt Specimen, and Haarlem Specimen, which was originally classified as a Pterodactylus species.
The 12th and last Archaeopteryxspecimen to be found was discovered in 2010 and announced in 2014, but hasn't yet been scientifically described.
Dethroned as first bird
Recent discoveries from China, Mongolia and Argentina have shaken up what paleontologists knew about the relationship between stem-birds and bird-like theropods.
In 2011, scientists uncovered a fossil in Liaoning, China, whose combination of features unexpectedly suggested Archaeopteryx was actually just a relative of the lineage that ultimately gave rise to birds
When the researchers analyzed features of the new specimen, Xiaotingia zhengi, and Archaeopteryx, they concluded that both animals belonged to the dinosaur group Deinonychosauria — bird-like theropods, which includes Velociraptor and Microraptor — instead of the stem-bird group Avialae.
The analysis, published in Nature, also suggested the earliest known avialan is a pigeon-size feathered creature known as Epidexipteryx hui, recently discovered in Inner Mongolia, China.
However, subsequent analyses (including Foth's 2014 study) of Archaeopteryx, Xiaotingia and other creatures, such as Aurornis and Anchiornis, have restored Archaeopteryx to its Avialae roots.
"Here, Archaeopteryx turned out to be a basal bird, again," Foth said. "Interestingly, we also found Anchiornis and Xiaotingia on the stem-bird branch, even more basal than Archaeopteryx. Per definition, these guys would [now] be the oldest representatives of stem-birds, but Archaeopteryx would be the first definitely fightable representative."
Additional reporting by Kim Ann Zimmermann, Live Science Contributor.
Precambrian: Facts About the Beginning of Time
Paleozoic Era: Facts & Information
Mesozoic Era: Age of the Dinosaurs
Cenozoic Era: Facts About Climate, Animals & Plants